weekly[4] & exercise[3]

lim jia sheng,

.Design Principles
::weekly[4] & exercise[3]

lecture[1]: Repetition & Movement

In this recorded lecture, we were taught about the duo — Repetition & Movement — as well as two more pro tips — HierarchyAlignment.


Formed by repeating design subjects & creating rhythm and pattern, resulting in increased surface interest.


Repetition is traditionally found in and most commonly linked to, Patterns.


Figure 1.1.1, Repetition found from patterns, n.d

Different Transformations

Repetition can also be achieved by duplicating design subjects, with different transformations applied to each instance.

Figure 1.1.2, Repetition found from instance duplication, n.d

Similar Forms

Is related to Different Transformations, but uses Similar design subjects instead of the exact same for each instance.

Figure 1.1.3, Repetition achieved using Similar Forms, n.d


Uses different design subjects, but their arrangements create invisible visual lines that spawn the sense of Repetition.

Figure 1.1.4, Repetition through the formation of a grid-like structure on the images, n.d


Repeated uses of colours from the same palette, in a structured way.


Figure 1.1.5, Repetition of colour, n.d


Movement occurs when a design successfully leads the eye around and through a composition, making it follow a path.

Figure 1.1.5, Example of the path taken of a viewer's eyes on a piece with Movement, n.d



It is the choreography of content in a composition to communicate info, directing viewers in a sequence of information importance.

Type Size

 Headings, then subheadings, then minor headings, etc.

Figure 1.1.6, Hierarchy created by using different type sizes, n.d

Image Size

The sizes and placements of design subjects(/images) indicate hierarchy.

Figure 1.1.7, Hierarchy created through image sizing & positioning, n.d


 It comes from lining up the edges of elements along common rows/columns (invisible grids/visual lines created). When achieved, creates a sense of unity & contributes to the overall piece's perceived stability.

Figure 1.1.8, Alignment of geometry along the common rows & columns, 2019.

    lecture[2]/tutorial: Repetition & Movement++


      • Is an artifact of composition
      • Is directional


      • Creates other artifacts, like movement
      • Is directional, but not obviously (only an illusionary path may be directional in a 2D frame)
    Figure 1.2.1, Examples of Hierarchy with Repetition, 21/4/2021


    We were given feedback for exercise[2].

    exercise[3]: Repetition & Movement



    Create two pieces of design on paper using water colour or pastels; one showcasing Repetition, & one showcasing Movement.



    For Repetition, I started out looking at random patterns until I stumbled across this particular gem:

    Figure 2.1.1, Train and subway maps from around the world, 27/1/2013


    This reminded me a lot of circuit board layouts, which often consist repeating traces to deliver multiple streams of data or power to componentry that demand them.



    Figure 2.1.2, Examples of PCB layouts, n.d

    Unfortunately, this week's medium requirements were water colours/pastels, which definitely would've cause mass destruction if used in any attempts to draw many thin lines.

    Some of the bends & endings did remind me of something surprisingly similar though — trees. Strictly speaking, tree branches & electric traces don't serve purpose even closely related, but the aspect of them connecting components to one another in a multidimensional space, served as enough linkage for me.

    Figure 2.1.3, Repetition in trees & tree branches, n.d

    Now with Repetition out of the way, it comes Movement. The idea for this was a piece with something running through it, whether it be a road, river, or hopes and dreams.

    Figure 2.1.4, Movement in images taken from a low perspective, n.d



    These sketches were done in Adobe Fresco instead of my usual Photoshop endeavors. This is because Fresco allows me to use these super cool water colour brushes that are real-time simulated, thus letting me get a grasp on what I can actually do on paper when it comes time to translate it physically.

    Figure 2.2.1, Sketch for Repetition, 20/4/2021

    Figure 2.2.2, Sketch for Movement, 20/4/2021


    Figure 2.2.3, Render of Repetition, 22/4/2021

    Figure 2.2.3, Render of Movement, 21/4/2021


        • 28/4/2021
          • The sketches actually stood out more than the final versions
          • The blurred effect in the sketch of "Movement" actually adds to the Movement aspect of the artwork. The subsequent rendered version had less of the principle as it lost some part of the """surrealism""" of the sketch, as well as the definition of the lava flow through its texture.
          • The road part of the "Repetition" sketch took away from the artwork, as it weighed similarly and felt out of place. Maybe showing more of the trees would be ideal.


    Figure 2.3.1, Final render of Repetition, 28/4/2021

    Figure 2.3.2, Render of Movement, 28/4/2021


    This week's exercise was definitely more of a doozy. It got me to experiment and try things that I wouldn't have had an excuse to otherwise (Adobe Fresco & wet-look water colour). Through the bumping around with Repetition & Movement, I noticed that they're are a lot more like artifacts rather than strong driving forces. I took this and interpreted them to be less of a binary, and more determined by a threshold on whether they exist in a piece or not. Overall, I've definitely learnt about the nitty gritty's of the two principles, as their implementation procedures.