lectures & exercises

lim jia sheng,

.Video & Sound Production
::lectures & exercises


[1]: Module Briefing:

Nothing too technical was explored during this class. We were brought through the structure of the class itself & the tools we'd have to prepare in order to execute projects effectively. Some senior work for each of the projects was shown as well, they looked pretty neat.

We were, however tasked with a few things — simple piecing together of sliced video in Premiere Pro, looking through Zack King's backlog of videos, & find then shortlist 3 cool stop motion shorts.

[2]: Framing & Storyboard:

We were brought through some history regarding cinematography & how multiple shots came to be in a world of one continuous takes. Then, came other stuff.

Shot sizes


  • Wide shot (WS)
    • Includes subject & important objects in immediate surroundings.
    • If it's used at the beginning of a scene it's often called an "establishing shot”.
  • Medium shot (MS)
    • Showcases the subject
    • Important to understanding gestures & expression
    • Shot from the waist up, with hands & lower half falling out of frame
  • Medium close-up shot (MCU)
    • Shot between waist/shoulders to above head
  • Over the shoulder shot (OS)
    • Shot of subject behind the shoulder of them

Less Common

  • Extreme wide shot (EWS)
    • Showcases a broad view of the surroundings around character
    • Conveys scale, distance, & geographical location
  • Medium wide shot (MWS)
    • Shot of character from above legs or knees
    • Showcases the physical setting of action.
  • Close-up shot (CU)
    • Isolates the most important part of subject
    • For a speaker, is normally head, or small object
  • Extreme close-up shot (ECU)
    • Singles out a portion of the face or object
    • Increases the drama/impact


Rule of thirds

Rule of thirds, 1/9/2021

Figure 1.1.1, Rule of thirds, 1/9/2021

Subject Angle

  • 45º for faces, properly lit for round & full eyes
  • Angling of backgrounds with 2 or more faces in relation of subject
  • Angling of camera so parallel lines converge to subject

Camera Height

  • Eye level
    • Gives impression of parity with viewer
  • Low angle
    • Makes character look bigger/stronger
  • High angle
    • Makes character look smaller/weaker/more childlike

Screen Direction

  • Constant screen direction
    • Depicts subject motion in 1 direction
  • Static screen direction
    • Using the 180º rule for shots with 2 characters
    • Enforces that the camera stays on a horizontal axis & not cross sections
    • Horizontal axis is called "Line of Action"

[3]: Storytelling in Film (pt. 1):


Chain of events in cause-effect relationship occurring in time & space. We make sense of it by identifying said events & linking them by causality (cause-effect), time, & space.

Example without cause-effect relationship

  1. A man tosses and turns, unable to sleep.
  2. A mirror breaks.
  3. A telephone rings.

Example with cause-effect relationship

  1. A man has a fight with his boss.
  2. He tosses & turns that night, unable to sleep.
  3. In the morning, he is still so angry that he smashes the mirror while shaving
  4. His phone rings, his boss has called to apologize.

Story & plot

Infographic on story vs plot

Figure 1.1.2, Infographic on story vs plot


  • Who & why.
  • Explicitly Presented Events + Presumed/Inferred Events.
    • The set of all the events in a narrative, both the ones explicitly presented and those the viewer infers.


  • What/how/when/where happened.
  • Explicitly Presented Events + Added Non-diegetic (narrative) Material.
    • Everything visibly and audibly present in the film, and material that is extraneous to the story world.

Figure 1.1.3, Difference between story & plot

Plot segmentation

A method for breaking down a plot per scene in a line by line fashion. It helps reveal a film’s overall structure and its smallest details.

Example of plot segmentation

What plot segmentation should be

  • Major changes within the narrative
    • eg. changes in action, time & space.
  • Short and succinct with key points only.

What plot segmentation shouldn't be

  • A synopsis of the film.
  • Lengthy description.

[3]: Storytelling in Film (pt. 2) + Intro to Audio:

Storytelling in film

Story structure

  1. Act 1: Beginning
  • Setup/introduction of a story.

[Plot point 1 happens]

  • The "inciting incident".
  • Turn the story in a new direction.
  • Sets up what act 2 is going to be.
  • Raises the stakes.
  • Reminder of the narrative enigma; presents the possibility of a different outcome.
  1. Act 2: Middle
  • Confrontation of problem.

[Plot point 2 happens]

  • The "Climactic Turning Point"
  • Protagonist's quest reaches critical mass
  • Possible solution is presented
  • Biggest cliffhanger: will the protagonist win or lose?
  1. Act 3: End
  • Resolution of problem.
[1]: Burrow (2020):

2D animated short film produced by Pixar. The plot features a young rabbit as she tries to build the burrow of her dreams, becoming embarrassed each time she accidentally digs into a neighbor's home.

  1. Act 1
  • To introduce the world.
  • To introduce the main characters.
  • To establish the dramatic situation.
  1. Act 2
  • Known as "Rising Action".
  • To develop obstacles/complications.
  1. Act 3
  • Ending of climax.
  • Answer to all obstacles/problems.
  • Tying the loose ends.
[2]: Lalin (2020):

Lalin is a Thai girl living in Sapporo, Japan; where no one knows her and can live under a new identity. Posing as a modern beauty, she becomes an idol on the internet. The reality is that Lalin hiding from the world and striving for self-acceptance.

  1. Act 1
  • To set up Lalin as a popular beauty influencer.
  • To set up Lalin's masking behaviour even at home.
  • To set up Lalin's past of being bullied for her appearance.
  • To introduce the setting — Sapporo, Japan.
  1. Act 2
  • To introduce Nut.
  • To showcase the relationship between Lalin & Nut.
  • To reveal Lalin's natural face.
  • To introduce turmoil into Lalin & Nut's relationship.
  • To reveal Lalin & Nut's past.
  • To reveal Nut's efforts for Lalin.
  1. Act 3
  • To show Lalin chasing after Nut.
  • To end on a sour note.

Intro to audio

The art of sound design

Sound elements

The mixing of sound elements create an audio setting that supports the action and engages the spectators.

Types of sound elements, n.d

Figure 1.1.4, Types of sound elements, n.d


Conversation between characters in movie.

Voice over

The voice of an unseen narrator speaking.

Sound effects


The background noise present at a given scene or a location.

Hard/"cut" effects

Almost every sound we hear at the movies that isn't dialogue or music is a sound effect. (eg. train sliding door open and close, foot steps, train moving on tracks, ambience in train, etc.)


To enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact.

Dubbing/Automated Dialog Replacement (ADR)

The process of re-recording dialogue after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialogue changes.


A sound effect technique for synchronous/live effects. Named after Jack Foley, a sound editor at Universal Studios.


[1]: Video Editing (Miscellaneous):

We were provided a few clips. The first set was simply just to join together sequentially in Premiere Pro.

Figure 1.2.1, Joined "mints" comercial, 25/8/2021

After we had that done, the second set was a little trickier — shuffled. Not gonna lie, it was a pain in both ends of the human digestive system, but I eventually managed to get it.

Figure 1.2.2, Sorted & joined "Doritos" comercial, 25/8/2021

[2]: Shots + Video Editing (Lalin):


We were instructed to take a few shots of ourselves in preparation of project 2.

Shot types:

  • Low angle Wide shot
  • Frontal MCU
  • Frontal MS
  • Extreme Close-Up shot
  • Profile MS (soft background)
  • ¾ angling MCU shot (with blurry/soft foreground)
  • Close-Up shot
  • Eye-Level Medium-Wide shot

Shot criteria:

  • Shoot wide shot with wide angle.
  • The rest ZOOM IN to get soft background.
  • Refer to the examples provided or google references for GOOD composition.
  • Avoid overexposed or underexposed (too bright or too dark).
  • Do the shooting during day time.
  • Shoot landscape format video, 5 seconds per shot.
  • Edit with CAPTION (Mention the shot size), export video for submission.

I decided I wanted to have some fun with it & made a little """short-film""".

Figure 1.2.3, Shots, 1/9/2021

Video Editing (Lalin)

This was a continuation of last week's editing exercise. This time we were provided with the sequence & a storyboard, but had to trim off the director's rambles (cut, action, etc.).

Figure 1.2.4, Trimmed & joined "Lalin" short excerpt, 1/9/2021

[3]: Shots + Plot segmentation:


We were instructed to take a few shots of ourselves DANCING in preparation of project 2.

Shot types:

  • Wide shot, high angle
  • 3 single body shots, eye level
  • Medium shot, eye level
  • Medium close up shot, eye level
  • Close up shot, eye level
  • Extreme close up shot, eye level
  • Wide shot, low angle

I am not good at dancing, watch with care. No warranty provided, side effects may include pain.

Plot segmentation:

We had to segment the plot of "Burrow" — an oscar nominated short film on Disney+ — & end up with 15-20 points.

After that, we had to prepare a story & plot for project 2 that we're going to use. It was noted that generally, the story/plot goes something like — main character wants something, they don't get the thing, they use magic to circumvent whatever restriction there was.